Balance Of Payment UPSC Notes – Download Pdf

Balance of payments notes are a monetary instrument used by governments and international bodies to record their payments to other states. They are created by the BOP department of a country that wishes to make a payment. A balance of payments surplus means that the country has more funds flowing out than coming into its economy, whereas a deficit means just the opposite.

In order to achieve sustainable long-term growth, India needs to improve its balance of payments position. This means balancing domestic demand through higher exports and imports and reducing net international reserves.

In order to prepare the Balance of payment topic UPSC aspirants can Download the pdf notes. This Balance of payment notes pdf will be very helpful for UPSC Aspirants. So download the pdf from the given link.

What is the Balance of payments?

Balance of Payments (BoP) is the sum of all bilateral transactions between a country’s residents and non-residents over a period of time. BoP measures the net inflow or outflow of money, goods, services, investments, etc., from all sources to or from a particular country. The balance of payment is also known as the trade surplus or deficit.

What is a capital account?

Capital account refers to the financial assets and liabilities associated with a company’s business activities. Capital accounts are recorded in its books of accounts. These records are used to track the flow of money between various parts of a business. A company uses capital accounts to record payments for goods received, expenses incurred, interest earned, dividends paid, and any other transactions involving cash.

Capital account includes two types of items: current assets and fixed assets. Current assets represent funds that are expected to be spent or converted into cash within twelve months or less. Examples include inventory, prepaid expenses and receivables, among others. Fixed assets are long-term investments that are not expected to generate income for at least one year. Examples include buildings, machinery, vehicles, and equipment.

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Components Of Balance Of Payment

The balance of payments is the accounting statement that summarises a country’s international transactions for a given period. It shows the amount of money that a country receives from other countries and sends to other countries during a given period.

The balance of payment can be broken down into different components, including payments, receipts, capital transfers and transfers. The basic difference between them is that payments show how much an individual country receives from other countries, while receipts show how much an individual country sends abroad.

Payments are made in cash or merchandise (such as oil or grain) while receipts are made with goods or services (such as labour or intellectual property). In addition to these two basic types of transactions, there are also credit sales and debt forgiveness transactions that do not fall under any of these categories.

Balance Of Payment: Importance

A country’s balance of payments is a measure of its international trade and investment. It records the country’s imports and exports, its foreign assets such as gold and other currencies, and its payments on foreign debt. The balance of payments can be positive (when a country has a trade surplus) or negative (when it has a trade deficit). The balance of payment is the difference between what a nation imports and exports. If this number is negative, then there will be a large deficit. The other side of the equation shows how much money that country has coming into its economy. For example, if one country buys more goods from another, then it would increase its positive balance of payments.

The balance of payment is a statement of the monetary flows between countries. It shows how much money is coming into a country and how much money is going out. The BOP balance consists of the primary income account, which consists of exports minus imports; and the secondary income account, which consists of net foreign assets minus net foreign liabilities.

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Balance of Payments: Formula

The formula for the balance of payments is:

BOP = (net exports – net income) + (net capital movements – net financial investment) + (net transfers) + (net errors and omissions).

The first two terms, net exports, and net income are the same as in the national accounts. The second two terms are also the same as in national accounts. The third term is defined as follows: Net transfers are the difference between official and unofficial transfers, which include official aid, official development assistance and official remittances. Unofficial transfers are those that do not have any counterpart on the other side of an international border (such as smuggling).

Net errors and omissions are defined as the difference between gross flows and gross payments, plus interest paid on loans by residents to non-residents.

The balance of payments is a simple, but useful, measure of the wealth and financial flows within an economy. It accounts for all money that flows into or out of a country in a given period. The balance of payments is calculated by subtracting the value of exports from the value of imports over a specified period.

The balance of payments is used to monitor if there are any imbalances in trade between countries.

The balance of payments does not consider whether these goods are produced using foreign labour or imported oil. For example, if you buy a shirt made outside your country but you must wait for it to come from China on an ocean liner, then you have no real choice but to pay for it since there is no other way it could get there faster than sitting on an ocean liner (unless you want it shipped by cargo plane).

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Autonomous Transactions vs Accommodating Transaction

Accommodating transactions are defined as those where both parties agree on what each party will get, and all terms of the transaction are clear. Examples of accommodating transactions would be buying a car, selling a product, signing a contract, writing a check, etc.

Autonomous transactions are those where neither side agrees on what they will get, and all the terms are not clearly known. An example of this kind of transaction is if someone asks for money, then they do not have to give any money back unless they say so. If they ask for something else, the person who offers may or may not want to give it to them. In this case, the person offering does not know what he or she is going to receive.

When two people engage in an autonomous transaction, each party knows that they will not get everything they want. However, these transactions sometimes work out well, especially if the participants trust each other enough to follow through with the agreement.

There are several reasons why autonomous transactions can be successful. First, when negotiating a transaction, people often feel pressured to make a deal happen immediately. Second, many times, people feel bad about saying no, even though they really don’t want to accept the offer. Third, people can easily change their mind about the terms of the transaction. Fourth, some people just do not like the idea of having to negotiate at all. Lastly, we tend to remember things poorly and end up blaming ourselves for making a poor decision. All these factors can lead to the failure of a transaction.


The balance of payments is an important economic indicator. It measures a country’s trade with the rest of the world and can be used to predict a country’s economic health. A country with a strong balance of payments is typically doing well economically, while a country with a weak balance of payments is typically struggling.

As a nation, India has done well maintaining a balance of payments surplus over the years. This means that India receives more foreign exchange inflows than outflows. India has become a global leader in terms of trade and foreign direct investment, but its current account deficit remains high at around 4% of GDP. The country now faces the challenge of maintaining macroeconomic stability without compromising fiscal discipline or achieving sustained growth.

Balance of Payment UPSC

Balance of payment forms an important topic for UPSC Civil Services Exam. Every year, both in prelims and mains, candidate can expect questions from this section.


  1. What is meant by balance of payment?

The Balance of Payment (BOP) describes how much money the country spends versus what it receives in terms of foreign currency. To put it simply, it’s the amount of money we spend on our imports, minus the amount of money we receive from our exports. In short, it shows us whether we are spending less than we earn or spending more than we earn. It’s a simple concept, but it can get complicated if you start adding in things like interest rates and exchange rates.

  1. What is bop in the Indian economy?

Balance of payments is the term used to describe the flow of money between two countries. In simple language, it means how much money does country A owe to country B, and vice-versa. When the value of incoming goods exceeds that of outgoing goods, the BoP becomes positive. However, if the value of the outgoing goods exceeds that of incoming goods, then the BoP becomes negative. The BoP concept was first introduced in India in 1951. Before that, the only way one could measure the trade deficit/surplus was to count the amount of gold collected at customs.

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