Indian Constitution pdf Free Download – Hindi, Urdu, Tamil & English

Indian Constitution pdf being written in easy English language for proper knowledge and understanding. This Indian Constitution pdf is very important for competitive exams.

The Constitution of India is considered to be the supreme law of India. Every citizen of India is bound to follow all the rules and provisions made in the Constitution.

A Constitution is a legal body of fundamental principles and doctrines by which the state is governed. It can be written or unwritten.

Features of the Indian Constitution pdf:

  1. Lengthiest Written Constitution:

The Constitution of India is the lengthiest of all the written Constitutions of the world. It is written in a very comprehensive way, elaborating every provision. In 1949, the Indian Constitution contained a preamble along with 395 Articles which is divided into 22 parts and it also contains 8 Schedules. After various amendments, at present, the Indian Constitution consists of a preamble, about 470 Articles divided into 25 parts and 12 Schedules.

The factors which have contributed to its elaborate size are:

  • Geographical factors- the large size and diversity of India
  • Historical factors- the influence of the Government of India Act, 1935
  • Single Constitution for both the Centre and the State
  • Dominance of legal luminaries in the Constituent Assembly.
  1. Derived From Different Sources:

Many provisions of the Indian Constitution are derived from the Constitutions of other countries. The Fundamental Rights, the Independence of the Judiciary, and the idea of Judicial Review have been taken from the Constitution of America. The Directive Principles of State Policy and the method of the election have been taken from the Irish Constitution. The concept of Parliamentary government, Bicameralism, and Single Citizenship have been taken from the British Constitution. The other provisions of the Indian Constitution have been drawn from the Constitutions of Japan, Canada, USSR (now Russia), France, etc. The Federal Scheme, the Emergency Powers, Governors, and most other administrative details have been taken from the Government of India Act, 1935.

Download Indian Constitution pdf

  1. Federal System with Unitary Bias:

The Constitution of India establishes a federal system of government. India has two governments- one for centre and the other for the state; supreme, written, and rigid Constitution; division of powers; independent judiciary and bicameralism. These are the features of a federal state. However, India has a strong centre, single and flexible citizenship, single constitution, and so on which are the features of a unitary state.

  1. Parliamentary Form of Government:

India has a parliamentary system just like the ‘Westminster’ Model of Government of Britain. In India, there are nominal and real executives, majority part rule, membership of ministers in the legislature, collective responsibility of the executive to the legislature, dissolution of Lok Sabha, and Leadership of the Prime Minister. These are the features of parliamentary government in India.

  1. Combination of Rigidity and Flexibility:

The Constitution of India is neither rigid nor flexible, but a combination of both. According to Article 368, some provisions can be amended by two-third majority of the members of each house present and voting, and a majority of the total membership of each house, and some provisions can be amended by a special majority of the Parliament and with the ratification by half of the total states. Some provisions of the constitution can be amended by a simple majority of the Parliament.

  1. Integrated and Independent Judiciary:

The Supreme Court of India stands at the top of the integrated judiciary system and below it is the high courts of different states. Below the high court are the district courts and other lower courts. The Supreme Court is the highest court of appeal, the protector of fundamental rights, and the guardian of the Constitution. The Constitution of India has made many provisions to ensure the independence of the judiciary from the other organs of the government.

Also Read:

  1. Fundamental Rights:

Part III of the Indian Constitution guarantees to all its citizens six fundamental rights.

They are:

  • Right to Equality (Articles 14-18);
  • Right to Freedom (Articles 19-22)
  • Right against Exploitation (Articles 23-24)
  • Right to Freedom of Religion (Article 25-28)
  • Cultural and Educational Rights (Articles 29-30)
  • Right to Constitutional Remedies (Article 32)

They are meant for promoting the idea of political democracy. They are justiciable in nature and are enforceable by the courts for their violation.

  1. Fundamental Duties:

Part IV-A of the Indian Constitution guarantees eleven fundamental duties which are to be followed as responsible citizens.

They are:

  • Abide by the Constitution and respect the national flag and the National Anthem
  • To cherish and follow ideals of the freedom struggle
  • To uphold and protect sovereignty, unity, and integrity of India
  • Defend the country and render national services when called upon
  • To promote harmony and spirit of common brotherhood
  • To preserve the rich heritage and composite culture
  • Protect and improve the natural environment
  • Develop scientific temper, humanism, and spirit of inquiry
  • Safeguard public property and abjure violence
  • Strive for excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity
  • Duty for all parents/guardians to send their children in the age group of 6-14 years to school.
  1. Universal Adult Franchise:

The Constitution of India adopts universal adult franchise as a basis of elections to the Lok Sabha and the state legislative assembly. In India, every citizen who is of 18 years and above has a right to vote without any discrimination of caste, race, religion, sex, and creed. They have the right to elect their own representative. This is known as the universal adult franchise. This promotes equality and allows the participation of common people in the election.

  1. Single Citizenship:

Though India is a federal state, the Indian Constitution provides one single citizenship, that is, Indian citizenship ta all its citizens. This is a unitarian feature. No discrimination is made between the people living in different states and everyone enjoys equal political and civil rights of citizenship all over the country.

  1. Directive Principles of State Policy:

Part IV of the Indian Constitution specifies the Directive Principles of State policy. They are classified into three categories namely, socialistic, Gandhian, and liberal-intellectual. They seek to provide welfare to all the people of India. Unlike fundamental rights, they are not justiciable and are not enforced by the courts for their violation.

  1. Three-tier Government:

In the 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Act of 1992, the provision of a three-tier government was added to the Constitution of India. The 73rd Amendment Act recognized the panchayats by adding Part IX and a new Schedule 11 to the Indian Constitution and the 74th Amendment Act recognized the municipalities by adding Part IX-A and a new Schedule 12 to the Indian Constitution.

Indian Constitution pdf Download Link

A Constitution that has been systematically coded and written down into a single document is called a Written Constitution whereas a constitution that is not written or compiled in a structured way into a single document is called an Unwritten Constitution. The Constitution of India is a Written Constitution and the Constitution of the United Kingdom is an example of an Unwritten Constitution.

Download Indian Constitution pdf  Click Here

Other than these, there are also features like Secular State, Sovereignty and Judicial Supremacy, Independent Bodies, Emergency Provisions, and Co-operative Societies which define the Constitution of India. Though the Constitution of India adopted by the Constituent Assembly has been criticized on various grounds, it has still continued to be the supreme law of the land and has served its purpose in maintaining stability in a country like India which has such a large population and is considered to be the biggest democracy in the world.


Leave a Comment