Mughal empire family tree: Mughal dynasty, also known as Mogul or Moghul (sometimes written “Mongol”) in Persian, was a Muslim dynasty descended from Turkic Mongols that governed the majority of northern India from the early 16th to the mid-18th centuries. After that, it persisted in being a much smaller and more helpless entity until the middle of the 19th century.
Mughal empire History
The Mughal dynasty was renowned for its more than two centuries of successful administration over a large portion of India, as well as for the abilities of its emperors, who, through seven generations, kept up a record of uncommon aptitude and administrative organization. Another contrast was the Mughals’ desire to combine Hindus and Muslims into a single Indian state. The Mughals were Muslims.
The Mughal Empire ruled over nearly the whole Indian Subcontinent from the middle of the 1500s and the beginning of the 1700s. It extended from the western margins of the Indus River basin, northern Afghanistan, and Kashmir, through the eastern highlands of what is now Assam and Bangladesh, and down to the southern uplands of the Deccan plateau.
Babur, Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan, and Aurangzeb were the first six Mughal rulers of the dynasty, and they were responsible for this rise that harnessed enormous power and wealth.
A large portion of the Indian Subcontinent was dominated by the Mughal Empire between the middle of the 1500s and the beginning of the 1700s. It spanned the eastern highlands of what are now Assam and Bangladesh, the western edges of the Indus River basin, northern Afghanistan, and Kashmir, as well as the southern uplands of the Deccan plateau.
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Mughal empire family tree
Babur, Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan, and Aurangzeb were the first six Mughal rulers who supervised this rise to tremendous power and wealth.
Babur (AD 1526-1530)
He founded the Mughal Empire. His father, Genghis Khan, was a Mongol emperor.
Early in the 15th century, Babur arrived in India to conquer the Punjab State but soon changed his mind and resolved to take over the entire nation. The Indian Subcontinent was then ruled by the Lodi dynasty.
In 1526, he defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the First Battle of Panipat. The result was the destruction of the Delhi Sultanate, and the establishment of the Mughal empire.
He served as Emperor from 1526 to 1530. In the battles of Khanwa and Chanderi, Babur engaged the Rajput and ultimately prevailed in both. The Babri Masjid, the Jama Masjid, and the Kabuli Bagh Mosque were all constructed by him. Babur had eight wives and eighteen kids.
Humayun (AD 1530-1556)
He was the second Emperor of the Mughals after he was successful in Bahur. Maham Begum gave birth to Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad in Kabul in 1508. Humayun became the Mughal Empire’s Emperor in 1530 and ruled until 1556. a period of exile lasting fifteen years.
From the start of his administration, Sultan Bahadur of Gujarat and Sher Shah Suri were after him.
Suri and Humayun engaged in combat at Chausa in 1939. Suri consented when Humayun made the diplomatic decision to remove him as province minister and give Bengal and Bihar to him. However, Humayun lost Suri at the Battle of Kannauj.
This marked the start of Humayun’s exile as well as the founding of the Sur Empire.
Humanyun decided to recapture his empire following the deaths of Suri and his son in 1554. In the Battle of Sirhind, he amassed a sizable army under the command of Bairam Khan. Bega Begum served as his principal consort, while Akbar served as his heir. In Delhi, Humayun’s Tomb honours him. He passed away in 1556.
Gulbadan Begum, his half-sister, wrote Humayun-nama.
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Akbar (AD 1556-1605)
He became the third Mughal Emperor in Humayun’s place. In 1542, Hamida Banu Begum gave birth to him as Jalal-ud-din Muhammad in Amarkot, Rajputana. Akbar came into power in 1556 and ruled until 1605. In his early years of rule, Bairam Khan was usually there to advise him on many issues.
In modern society, he is the most revered Mughal Emperor. He desired to be the ruler of all of Hindustan.
Akbar attacked Punjab, Delhi, Agra, Rajputana, Gujarat, Bengal, Kabul, Kandahar, and Baluchistan to start enlarging his realm. He oversees establishing India’s administrative structure and stabilizing the country’s economy. Following his conquest of northern India, Akbar turned his attention to Rajputana.
He gained authority over the majority of Rajputana in 1576 after winning the Battle of Haldighati.
Fatehpur Sikri was elevated to the status of the empire’s second capital as a result of this victory. The dominance of marine trade over Gujarat and Bengal was the next item on his list. He has been fascinated by Mughal architecture his entire life. He constructed the Akbar’s Tomb, Jodhabai Palace, Humayun’s Tomb, and Buland Darwaza. In Agra, Akbar perished in 1605.
Bengal was the next, which the Mughals once more conquered in 1575 at the Battle of Tukaroi.
Four divisions made up his administrative structure: the military, household, religious, and revenue divisions. By providing them with tax breaks and loans, he helped the locals in his territory as well as the farm industry.
Additionally, he kept up diplomatic ties with the Portuguese Empire, Safavid Dynasty, and Ottoman Empire.
Ruqaiya Sultan Begum served as his primary consort, while Jahangir served as his successor. The subject of his marriage to Mariam-uz-Zamani (Jodha Bai) is much debated.
As the third Mughal emperor, 13-year-old Akbar was anointed by Humayun’s officer Bairam Khan. During the Second Battle of Panipat, he defeated Hemu with the help of Bairam Khan (AD 1556).
After conquering Baz Bahadur, Akbar conquered: Malwa (AD 1561); this was followed by the conquest of Garh-Katanga (ruled by Rani Durgawati)
- Kalinjar and Ranthambhor; Chittor (AD 1568); (AD 1569)
- Kashmir (1586 AD), Sindh (1593 AD), and Asirgarh (1586 AD)
Following Akbar’s conquest over Gujarat in AD 1572, the Buland Darwaza was built at Fatehpur Sikri. Akbar also supported widow remarriage and condemned the Sati tradition.
- Akbar wed Harka Bai, the Rajpur king Bharmal’s daughter.
- In AD 1585, Ralph Fitch became the first Englishman to visit Akbar’s court.
The Todar Mal Bandobast or Zabti system was established by him through his financial minister Raja Todar Mal, which included the classification of land and the determination of rent.
- He also established the rank-holder system, commonly known as the Mansabdari System, to organize the army and nobility.
- Todar Mal, Abul Fazal, Faizi, Birbal, Tansen, Abdur Rahim Khana-i-Khana, Mullah-do-Pyaza, Raja Man Singh, and Fakir Aziao-Din were the Navratnas or the nine eminent thinkers of Akbar’s court.
Jahangir (AD 1605-1627)
He succeeded Akbar as the fourth Mughal Emperor. Jodha Bai gave birth to Jahangir in Fatehpur Sikri in 1569 under the name Nur-ud-din Muhammad Salim. In 1605, he was crowned Emperor, and he reigned until 1627. Throughout the Mughal Empire, he promoted Persian culture.
Jahangir travelled to seize power in South India. He was successful in taking control of Khandesh and joining Ahmadnagar. As a celebration of his triumph over Rajputana’s Bundela, he constructed the Jahangir Mahal.
Kangra Fort was not successfully taken by Akbar, but Jahangir succeeded in doing so in 1620. He oversees establishing communication with the British East India Company.
Jahangir consumed a lot of alcohol and opium. He loved reading and painting a lot. During his rule, the Mughal artworks achieved their pinnacle. He built the Shalimar Bagh, the Begum Shahi Mosque, and the Bachcha Taj.
- Nur Jahan and Saliha Banu Begum were his main consorts. Prince Khurram or Shah Jahan succeeded him. He expired at Lahore in 1627. Jahangir, the son of Akbar, executed Arjun Dev, the fifth Sikh Guru.
- His largest political error occurred when Kandahar was lost to Persia in AD 1622.
- In AD 1611, Mehr-un-Nisa, the fourth Mughal Emperor, bestowed the title of Nur Jahan upon her.
- Zanjir-i-Adal was established by Jahangir in the Agra Fort for anyone who desired royal justice. Sir Thomas Roe and Captain Hawkins went to his court.
- Abdul Hassan, Ustad Mansur, and Bishandas were a few well-known painters working in Jahangir’s court.
Shah Jahan (AD 1628-1658)
He took over as the fifth Mughal Emperor after Jahangir. Shah Jahan was raised by Ruqaiya Begum after being born Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram to Jagat Gosain in Lahore in 1592. In 1628, he was crowned Emperor, and he reigned until 1658.
- He is renowned for establishing the Mughal architectural Golden Age during his rule.
- In the 1650s, Shah Jahan took over Peninsular India by capturing Baglana, Golconda, and eventually Bijapur. In 1648, he moved the Mughal Empire’s capital from Agra to Delhi.
- In addition, he founded the new city of Shhjahnbd not far from Delhi and engaged in battle with the Portuguese in 1631 to regain control of Bengal’s Hooghly harbour. Shah Jahan continued his relationship with the Ottomans while annexing Safavid dynasty lands.
During his rule, Mughal architecture was at its finest. He also constructed the Red Fort, Agra Fort, Wazir Khan Mosque, Jama Masjid, Shalimar Gardens of Lahore, and the Taj Mahal. Mumtaz Mahal served as his main consort, while Aurangzeb was his heir apparent.
- In AD 1639, Shah Jahan conquered Kandahar.
- Three European travellers visited Shah Jahan’s court: two Frenchmen, Bernier and Tavernier, and an Italian explorer, Manucci.
- The Taj Mahal contains the graves of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan. He passed away in Agra in 1666.
- The Mughal Empire’s “Golden Age” is thought to have occurred under Shah Jahan’s rule.
Aurangzeb (Alamgir) (AD 1658-1707)
Aurangzeb, the last famous Mughal Emperor and the son of Shah Jahan, took the throne following a bloody succession battle with his brothers Dara, Shuja, and Murad. A Royal Firman was issued against Sati in AD 1664 or 1666 and anyone who ordered widows to be burned was executed.
He was known as Darvesh or a Zinda Pir and endured several uprisings, including those from the Bundelas in Bundelkhand, the Satnami Peasantry in Punjab, and the Jat Peasantry in Mathura.
- Following the death of Raja Jaswant Singh, the conquest of Marwar in AD 1658 caused a significant schism between the Rajput and Mughals. Aurangzeb later took control of Bijapur and Golconda and reinstituted Jaziya in AD 1679.
- During his tenure, the conquests of the Mughal empire peaked.
- In 1675, Aurangzeb beheaded the ninth Sikh Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur. He also constructed the Jami or Badshahi Mosque in Lahore, the Moti Mahal inside the Red Fort of Delhi, and Biwi ka Makbara on the tomb of his queen Rabaud-Durani.